Isa Yusibov has a background as a Eurasia geopolitical danger analyst, predominantly specializing in Russia, Turkey and former Soviet republics. Based mostly upon his broad space of experience as a senior analyst he has contributed to numerous assume tanks and media retailers, and labored for numerous UK-based company intelligence corporations over the past years, whereas additionally being a visitor speaker at related establishments such because the Dutch Ministry of Protection and several other universities.
The place do you see essentially the most thrilling analysis/debates occurring in your area?
I might level out China in most of them, whether or not it’s in regards to the geopolitical penalties of the One Belt One Highway mission, the rising Chilly Battle rhetoric between China and US, and final however not least the challenges derived from the worldwide corona pandemic and the way which may change the availability chain from a world perspective for instance. There are some subjects within the Eurasian area which can proceed to be necessary within the coming years, such because the state of affairs in Ukraine, frozen conflicts in post-Soviet hemispheres, power safety and provide to the EU, Chinese language affect in Central Asia, developments concerning Iran and sanctions and naturally the upcoming political transition in authoritarian nations like Russia and Turkey.
How has the way in which you perceive the world shifted over time, and what (or who) prompted essentially the most important shifts in your pondering?
After I was born, the Soviet Union was nonetheless there. The very first geopolitical occasion I skilled, as a child although, was the autumn of the Soviet Union and the creation of a brand new actuality in the entire area with its alternatives and challenges. After I was learning Political Sciences and continued my grasp’s in Russian and Eurasian Research I already had a set of values, a body which outlined my world view, I might say primarily based on the liberal internationalist facet from a theoretic perspective. That has not modified a lot, I have to say. However there are after all sure subjects the place I can see a distinction: as a scholar, I used to be way more enthusiastic in regards to the geopolitical energy of the European Union. As a geopolitical analyst, years later, I do think about the EU being completely toothless on the subject of the geopolitical chessboard.
You’ve repeatedly dismissed issues over Turkey doubtlessly leaving NATO. Are you able to clarify your reasoning?
To be trustworthy, I’ve by no means understood why famend assume tanks maintain pushing the state of affairs risk that Ankara will depart NATO and pursue its personal overseas/navy coverage. If there may be one factor which can by no means occur in Turkey, that’s the exit from this alliance. By no means. For a easy motive: NATO is the last word defend defending Turkey in opposition to nuclear powers within the proximity, particularly in opposition to Russia. That’s the reason Erdogan instantly known as NATO Normal Secretary when Putin threatened Turkey after Ankara shot down a Russian navy jet in November 2015. Ankara completely understands that leaving NATO can be a disastrous factor to do. Turkey’s geostrategic place can be approach too necessary for the US particularly to simply accept Turkey’s potential (however inconceivable) exit from NATO. Turkey helps NATO membership of Ukraine and Georgia whereas some Western nations are cautious about it. Turkey additionally desires extra NATO affect within the Balkans and due to this fact supported Montenegro and Albania as effectively.
As Azerbaijan and Armenia clashed within the battle over Nagorno – Karabakh in 2020, we noticed Russia and Turkey supporting completely different sides within the battle. Are you able to clarify what the respective pursuits of the Turks and the Russians are within the Caucasus, and the way the state of affairs has advanced because the ceasefire was brokered between Armenia and Azerbaijan?
It’s certainly an attention-grabbing battle to look at. When the struggle began within the late 80s till a ceasefire in 1994, Russia supported Armenia, however Turkey didn’t assist Azerbaijan just because Ankara didn’t wish to become involved in a conflict with Russia. In 2020, Russia was apathic, didn’t assist Armenia, however Turkey offered navy assist for Azerbaijan when it comes to drones for instance. Russia didn’t intervene till a sure level to push each Baku and Yerevan to signal a ceasefire settlement, and the explanation why Russia determined to to not intervene derives from Moscow’s geopolitical pursuits. On the one hand, Putin wished to place the pro-Western Armenian PM Pashinyan underneath stress, then again, he wished to indicate goodwill to Azerbaijan by permitting Baku to retake its occupied territories. With out Putin’s approval, that gained’t be the case. In the case of the pursuits of Russia and Turkey, the area is after all inside their sphere of affect and sure components overlap them, particularly the South Caucasus. Russia considers the Caucasus as its yard. For Turkey, it’s the final route for opening as much as Central Asia for instance.
Personally, I believe that the struggle in 2020 and its aftermath have been completely deliberate by Russia to exert and enhance its affect within the area. First, the timing was necessary: the US was busy with presidential elections, the EU was busy coping with the pandemic. Russia has at all times supported the status-quo of the battle, as in to maintain it frozen. However this time, altering the status-quo had two particular benefits for the Kremlin: on the one hand, Russia introduced again navy personnel to the territory of Azerbaijan, then again, it made clear that the political institution in Armenia mustn’t even attempt to depart the Kremlin’s orbit, seeking to the West. At this second, Russia is the one participant within the area with all the required instruments for affect.
How do Russia and Turkey see one another in relation to their geopolitical place?
There has at all times been a rivalry between these two nations, additionally once they have been empires previously. There aren’t any different nations which have been concerned in so many wars with one another because the Turks and the Russians. And it isn’t a shock as a result of the combat for spheres of affect isn’t one thing new. Below Erdogan and Putin, they’ve tried to redefine their geopolitical pursuits and co-operate when it comes to sure subjects, corresponding to power, however from a macro perspective they’re two actors with completely different geopolitical aspirations inside the similar area. And that makes it inconceivable for Ankara and Moscow to be geopolitical allies. It’s only a co-operation of comfort when vital. That’s the reason I oppose the dominant concept within the West that Turkey has been pivoting in the direction of the East (Moscow/Beijing axis) abandoning the West. That’s positively not the case.
Western media typically experiences on the variations of opinion between Western-European nations and Turkey. Are you able to clarify the connection between Japanese-European states and Turkey? Is that this relationship altering?
It’s an attention-grabbing relationship with new dimensions, altering the general outlook within the area. The primary motive for that’s the truth that nearly all of these nations have been as soon as a part of the Soviet Union. So Turkey desires to make use of that to extend its geopolitical affect by providing them co-operation in opposition to Russian affect. And that’s thought-about as an important technique from the attitude of these Japanese European nations, in order that they have tried to tighten the co-operation with Turkey, largely in financial and navy phrases, but in addition visa-free journey alternatives. In that sense, I’m not shocked that a few of the Japanese European nations have additionally determined to purchase Turkish drones and different navy tools. Poland for instance grew to become the primary NATO nation to purchase Turkish drones after its successes in opposition to Russian missile methods in Syria, Libya and extra not too long ago within the Nagorno-Karabakh struggle. Ukraine has been following the identical path and has already began utilizing Turkish drones above Donbass, presently occupied by separatists backed by the Kremlin.
How do Russia and Turkey observe and interact with the rise of China within the worldwide political enviornment?
Relations between Moscow and Beijing have been at all times superb, as a result of they didn’t see one another as most important rivals. On the contrary, they’ve tried to co-operate as their most important anti-Western sentiment may very well be aligned. In the case of Ankara, it’s a bit ambiguous. Turkey has additionally sought co-operation with China and accepted rising Chinese language affect to draw overseas investments with a view to revive its financial system. Sooner or later, through the go to of Turkish Ministry of Overseas Affairs to Beijing, the minister actually mentioned that China’s safety was linked to Turkey’s safety and no unfavorable messages in Turkish media could be allowed to disturb the friendship.
However, Turkey has been very quiet in regards to the ongoing genocide in opposition to the Uyghurs in China. Turkey was additionally one of many first nations to import Chinese language corona vaccines. However I believe the state of affairs may change if Erdogan succeeds in attracting Western investments whereas taking place in opposition to China may be a requirement from a geopolitical perspective. The pragmatic in Erdogan gained’t assume twice about it.
What are the pursuits of Russia and Turkey within the Center East? Why have we witnessed each nations supporting completely different sides in Libya and Syria for instance?
Similar as in different areas: geopolitical affect. Particularly with diminishing American affect, each Turkey and Russia have tried to fill that energy vacuum, to exhibit their potential as a mediator, to draw new political alliances and so on. The Center East can be a area with entry to the Mediterranean Sea with its (newly) confirmed fuel reserves, which makes the world much more attention-grabbing.
Russia and Turkey have supported completely different sides in each Syria and Libya certainly. In Syria, Turkey was one of many first nations from the Western coalition which demanded the resignation of Assad. Russia intervened in Syria in 2015, as soon as once more utilizing the political vacuum created by the indecisiveness of the Obama administration to punish Assad for the usage of chemical weapons in opposition to his personal folks. Russia noticed a chance to get on the board, by offering navy assist to Assad so he might regain management over the misplaced administrative territories. For Russia, the involvement in Syria isn’t solely about defending Assad, however largely about safeguarding the Kremlin’s entry to the Mediterranean. It is very important be aware that the Soviet Union had its naval base in Syria within the 70s, and it was the one one outdoors the borders of the previous Soviet republics which has been operative since then. In the meantime Russia has expanded its air forces in Syria.
In Libya, Turkey helps the central authorities acknowledged by United Nations because the rightful administration, whereas Russia helps the militia led by Normal Haftar. As soon as once more, it’s about geopolitical pursuits. Turkey is within the political continuity of the present authorities which has shut ties to Turkey. Russia is aware of that Haftar will have the ability to safeguard Russian power function in Libya, one thing the central authorities doesn’t favour to take action. However each conflicts are intertwined and push Turkey and Russia to barter. Escalation in Syria means de-escalation in Libya and vice versa.
What’s an important recommendation you would give to younger students of Worldwide Relations?
What helped me perceive Russian and Turkish geopolitical ambitions is my data of each languages. If you’ll be able to converse and perceive the languages of your area of curiosity, you’ll be one step forward of individuals and analysts with out that linguistic benefit, as a result of they gained’t have entry to various sources to provide you with a extra detailed evaluation. So my first recommendation could be: familiarize your self along with your area.
Moreover, I might encourage younger students to be much more essential in opposition to well-known assume tanks, related strategic establishments and their analyses as they could exhibit critical flaws primarily based on mistaken conclusions and forecasts. Don’t be afraid to problem dominant theories and approaches as a result of they don’t seem to be essentially appropriate methods of pondering in a area which is consistently evolving.
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