Home News Inside Nigeria’s unregulated human egg trade

Inside Nigeria’s unregulated human egg trade


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It was a sizzling afternoon in October 2019, and 22-year-old Joan* had simply been crying in a ward of a non-public hospital in Mokola, a neighbourhood of Ibadan in southwestern Nigeria.

Seven days earlier, she had began taking hormone injections to stimulate her ovaries into producing mature eggs, a part of the method to get her physique prepared in order that the medical doctors may extract them.

Joan felt a bit uncomfortable from the examination and had a couple of painful spots on her decrease stomach the place she had been jabbed by the hormone injections. However her tears weren’t as a result of invasive nature of the process. Somewhat it was the physician’s manner, which she says was impolite and condescending.

“When he got here in to do the examination, I requested him if it was doable to get a feminine gynaecologist since a feminine one examined me throughout my preliminary go to. He flared up, stated no feminine gynaecologist was on obligation,” she recounts. “He proceeded to ask what was so particular about my physique, stated he had seen lots [of] vaginas earlier than, even that of a magnificence queen … and he even talked about her identify.”

“At this level, I used to be virtually crying. He stated he was not inspecting me once more, saying that I ought to go, I ought to get out, and he stormed out.”

Joan thought-about strolling out of the big two-storey constructing and abandoning the method totally. However a nurse satisfied her to remain. “[She] got here in to console me and advised me to apologise to him in order that he can simply end the process, and I can proceed so the medicine won’t be wasted. So, I needed to apologise to this man,” she says.

Joan was on the hospital that day as a result of she was promoting her eggs. Fertility is a booming enterprise in Nigeria with egg harvesting and different in vitro fertilisation (IVF) procedures carried out by each government-owned and personal hospitals. A brand new physique, the Affiliation of Fertility and Reproductive Well being (AFRH), lists 23 registered non-public clinics in its listing however a number of studies recommend there are greater than 70 fertility clinics within the nation, and this quantity is growing by the day. However there may be little to no regulation of those institutions.

‘Doing a favour and getting paid’

Joan had graduated from college and accomplished her yr’s service with Nigeria’s obligatory youth corps, the NYSC, earlier than starting a well-paid job as a challenge supervisor. However she felt sad in her job and wanted a change, so she stop after 5 months. She was quickly shortly burning by her financial savings, feeling depressed and struggling to search out different work.

She complained about her predicament to a good friend who’s a medical scholar. She steered that she donate her eggs at a fertility clinic. Though compensation can fluctuate relying on location, clinics typically pay between 80,000 naira ($195) and 150,000 naira ($365) per cycle of egg donation.

Joan visited a clinic to get extra info. “It felt like a win-win as a result of I understand how exhausting it may be for a girl to have youngsters, so I took it as me doing a favour and nonetheless getting paid for it,” she says.

The screening course of and eligibility procedures fluctuate from one clinic to a different. Joan describes what hers entailed: “They took my blood pattern, had checks finished for genotype, HIV, hepatitis, they usually requested many questions on my well being and medical historical past. Afterwards, I used to be advised to return again throughout my interval which is the start of my menstrual cycle.”

[Richard Smith/Al Jazeera]

The method from starting hormone injections to egg retrieval takes roughly 13 to fifteen days, relying on the physique’s response to the stimulating hormones.

“They gave me a bunch of injections. There have been two kinds of injections to take, and each have been meant to assist my ovaries produce further eggs in order that as a substitute of 1 egg per 30 days, it’ll be extra as a result of they wanted no less than six to extend the percentages for the particular person getting it,” Joan explains.

Joan needed to begin taking the injections at house – self-injecting her decrease stomach just below the navel day-after-day. After every week, she returned to the hospital to see how the eggs have been rising.

“Once I went to the clinic, they checked and stated I had like seven eggs already, and that if I may do like 5 extra days or six, that we may most likely get like double the quantity, simply to extend the percentages.”

It was then that she had the disagreeable encounter with the physician.

Regardless of already being midway by the donation course of, Joan walked house from the clinic, tormented by the complications that started when she began taking the hormone injections, desiring to stop the entire thing.

However she couldn’t as a result of she wanted the cash.

‘It’s higher than prostitution or stealing’

Nigeria’s unemployment price of 33.3 % in 2020 – a quantity that’s steadily rising – plus its excessive inflation price negatively impacts the financial mobility of many voters. In opposition to this backdrop, the promise of cash is a giant incentive for a lot of younger individuals to do issues they’d not ordinarily take into account.

It’s the major purpose Esther*, a 26-year-old baker who sells truffles and pastries from her house in Lagos, has donated her eggs six instances since February 2020, although specialists just like the American Society for Reproductive Drugs suggest that girls ought to solely donate their eggs six instances in a lifetime.

However with the government-mandated minimal wage in Nigeria at 30,000 naira ($73) per 30 days, and even the least well-paid egg donation paying greater than double that per spherical, many are prepared to just accept the potential well being dangers.

Esther’s first donation was finished by an company and she or he was paid 100,000 naira ($243). Such businesses actively recruit and display potential donors for the non-public clinics they’re affiliated with, and if licensed eligible, set donors up for egg stimulation injections and subsequent retrieval within the clinic. Some businesses – just like the one Esther went to – additionally pay ladies further for referring new donors.

Esther’s different donations have been finished at a clinic in Ikorodu in Lagos, the place she says there was a separate entrance for the donors in order that they might not be seen by the recipients. The clinic paid her 120,000 naira ($292) every time.

“I’ve 4 youthful ones [siblings] and my mom is previous,” she says dejectedly. “My father died in 2017, so it’s as much as me to make ends meet for us all. It’s been working nicely for me, and the cash goes a great distance. And it’s higher than prostitution or stealing.”

[Richard Smith/Al Jazeera]

Her first foray into egg donation was facilitated by a good friend who had had the process finished. She was paid a referral charge for connecting Esther to the donor company, and Esther acquired the identical charge when she referred others.

“If I deliver any individual they usually donate efficiently, I get some cash – 20,000 naira [$48] every. I’ve referred three individuals like that, that’s 60,000 naira [$146] free cash,” she says.

On her first go to, after signing some kinds giving her consent for the procedures and absolving the company or clinic of any duty, Esther was prepared to start. “There’s even a component that claims I wouldn’t come again to say the kid – as if I ever would,” she chuckles.

Then her egg harvesting course of started. “I used to be capable of donate the next month, and it was such a bizarre expertise as a result of I didn’t anticipate it to be so … private,” she says. “I imply, I used to be advised what to anticipate, but it surely was a distinct factor experiencing it. I felt like I used to be being opened all the way in which up and it was very uncomfortable.”

However she felt she needed to do it for the cash. “It was at a time I didn’t have any cake orders, so I wanted to undergo with it. I keep in mind pondering by no means once more as a result of the entire course of was very invasive.”

However then she acquired a name from a clinic the place she had initially enquired about egg donation. “I didn’t point out I’d donated elsewhere. I went in,” she says.

Esther did all of the checks the clinic requested, and was advised to return again when she was menstruating. Involved about donating her eggs once more so quickly, she delayed. However they referred to as once more so she went again two months after her first donation; the clinic even helped pay for her transport with an additional 1,500 naira ($3.66) journey allowance for every day she went in.

“The nurse who attended to me had so many guidelines – drink water, don’t use fragrance, don’t bathe within the noon, don’t have intercourse – however I do know she was simply doing her job and there have been so many people. She was so cranky and wouldn’t even reply questions,” she says.

The process generally could be painful … But it surely’s bearable, particularly with the cash.


“The primary donation I had on the clinic in Could was very painful,” she remembers. “On daily basis, I needed to go to the hospital for an injection on my thigh. After the primary three days, my abdomen felt very swollen, and I misplaced my urge for food. I may barely stroll but I needed to go for the injections every day. I feel it was the stress of all that motion, but it surely was so exhausting. The cash they supplied was 120,000 naira [$292] which was far more than the 100,000 [$243] the company paid, so I pushed by.”

All of the funds have been made by financial institution transfers and she or he acquired the funds the exact same day, she says.

However there have been unwanted effects. “After the [second of her six] donations, I had to return for therapy as a result of I used to be in extreme ache, and I even needed to pay for it [myself] … My stomach was cramping so unhealthy. I used to be admitted, given drips and a few injections.” This was a results of the quantity of hormones she had injected and the truth that she had left little time between donations.

When requested if she has considerations about the way it could have an effect on her well being sooner or later, she says, “Nicely, the process generally could be painful, and I usually have painful extreme cramps with heavy move on the subsequent interval.

“But it surely’s bearable, particularly with the cash,” she laughs.

After a minute’s silence, she continues, “They didn’t point out any long-term results – not on the clinic or company however I’ve additionally examine it, there’s nothing to fret about. At instances, I fear about the opportunity of exhausting my eggs, however I learn someplace that we now have a lot in order that’s close to not possible. Additionally, I don’t have plans of ever giving delivery so there’s that.”

The egg retrieval course of

The process for egg retrieval is often accomplished inside half-hour with the affected person beneath sedation. A needle is handed by the posterior vaginal wall into the ovaries beneath ultrasound steerage. The mature follicles are then aspirated by way of the needle into check tubes. This course of is repeated for the second ovary. The affected person is given analgesics and antibiotics afterwards and is placed on mattress relaxation to permit the sedation to put on off.

Abdulgafar Abiodun Jimoh, a professor and marketing consultant in gynaecology and obstetrics on the College of Ilorin Educating Hospital, says the most typical fast impact is ache, with donors experiencing various levels of it.

[Richard Smith/Al Jazeera]

Nonetheless, there may be extra. “There’s the opportunity of hyperstimulation syndrome which can be delicate, reasonable or extreme,” he explains.

It is a complication the place the surplus hormones trigger the ovaries to develop giant and the blood vessels surrounding them to leak fluid which causes swelling. Relying on the severity, this extra fluid can transfer into the stomach, lungs, and chest areas. It manifests as extreme discomfort, belly distension and ache, respiratory difficulties, liver and kidney dysfunction and coagulation issues.

“In extreme circumstances, it may be problematic, even deadly. Though it’s exceedingly uncommon, it has been reported. They could want surgical procedure, you might have to empty, they will go into shock, they will expertise kidney shutdown and the likes too,” the professor explains.

“Other than that, there’s a theoretical small likelihood of getting an an infection through the process, particularly as you’re placing your needle instantly into the peritoneum – that’s the place the ovaries are. The bladder and intestines are all throughout the neighborhood of the place the eggs are. In the event you mistakenly go into the gut and are available out, you’ve already picked some micro organism so transfers can occur. These are the potential dangers.

“Nonetheless, these dangers are comparatively unusual, particularly if good protocols and finest practices are adopted.”

Jimoh says though egg donation “is fraught with issues”, these issues are “largely delicate, not devastating, not life-threatening sufficient to discourage individuals from doing it – usually repeatedly”.

Authorities laws

It’s estimated that no less than one in 4 Nigerian {couples} could require assisted reproductive expertise (ART) equivalent to IVF. Nonetheless, legal guidelines and insurance policies will not be being developed quick sufficient to satisfy the calls for of this rising trade, specialists say.

A invoice for the institution of a Nigerian Assisted Replica Authority to manage this follow was introduced earlier than the Nationwide Meeting and read for the second time on Could 2, 2012. It was referred to the Committees on Well being and Justice however has not but been handed into legislation.

Professor Jimoh factors out that Nigeria just isn’t alone in being gradual to implement legal guidelines on this space. “It is just throughout the final 10 years that the UK itself has been capable of provide you with a regulation that claims you’re not purported to receives a commission for it [egg donation]. Within the EU, the laws continues to be far in between every of the international locations. In Nigeria, we definitely do not need laws but however we now have acts of parliament in place meant to type a legislation that governs assisted replica on this nation.”

In 2014, the Nationwide Well being Act was enacted. It’s presently the one authorized framework governing egg donation in Nigeria. Part 53 of the Act criminalises the change of human tissue and blood merchandise for cash, even permitting for a wonderful and/or as much as a yr’s imprisonment for these convicted. However the individuals Al Jazeera spoke to for this story have been unaware the legislation existed and not sure how it might apply to egg donation.

[Richard Smith/Al Jazeera]

“Persons are going to let you know they didn’t get cash, persons are going to bypass the method, that what they did was altruistic,” says Jimoh. “It’s doable for individuals to simply deliver somebody and say ‘that is my sister’ and get them to donate, however between them, they know that she has been paid and there’s no good proof to indicate that cash exchanged arms. Poverty is the foremost downside.”

Talking in regards to the lack of actionable legal guidelines, Amarachi Nickabugu, a Nigerian lawyer, says, “There’s a want for legal guidelines to guard the donor, recipient, and caregiver as nicely, one which defines who could be concerned within the methods and the rules for follow in addition to stipulate punishments for many who violate the principles of the follow. As a result of the percentages favour eggs from younger ladies, most donors are younger ladies, usually undergraduates, they usually do that from a susceptible, powerless, and penniless place. It’s financially coercive, and it’s important for there to be authorized safety towards exploitation for them.”

Explaining a loophole within the Well being Act, Nickabugu says, “The Nationwide Well being Act prohibits buying and selling in human tissues. Nonetheless, it doesn’t explicitly outlaw egg donations. So, the query is, are the egg donors ‘donating’ their eggs or ‘promoting’ them?”

Clinics may, in idea, describe funds as financial compensation for the prices accrued throughout egg donation quite than as funds for the eggs themselves.

The opposite facet

Fertility drugs could also be a fast-growing sub-sector of the healthcare system, however excessive prices and the truth that it isn’t lined by the Nationwide Well being Insurance coverage Scheme (NHIS) imply it’s out of attain for a lot of Nigerians.

A session with a fertility specialist can price within the vary of fifty,000 naira ($121) to 110,000 naira ($268). Intrauterine insemination (IUI) has an estimated price of 320,000 naira ($780), and a single-cycle IVF therapy with donor eggs prices 252,000 naira ($614) excluding medicine, authorized and scheduling charges.

Thirty-seven-year-old Adefunke* has had two unsuccessful rounds of IVF utilizing eggs from donors like Joan and Esther. However she continues to be hoping for a miracle.

After being married for 14 years with out conceiving a toddler, her husband has now taken a second spouse.

“I’ve by no means been in touch with any of my egg donors,” she says. “They have been all nameless donations … We have been required to fill a type stipulating the situations we wish – issues like tribe, complexion, genotype and the likes. Really, there have been lots of kinds …

“We additionally needed to do numerous checks. The medical doctors match us for genotype, blood group and different medical modalities. For my first session, it was my husband’s sperm we used. However not for the second.”

The expertise of donating? By no means once more … It’s a type of issues I attempt to suppress and put behind my thoughts prefer it by no means occurred.


Adefunke went by the method at a non-public clinic that she and her husband have been referred to by their household physician. Following consultations and checks, the clinic matched them with a donor. Adefunke says she paid 2.2 million naira ($5,362) for the primary try and a couple of.6 million naira ($6,337) for the second.

“It is vitally costly, that I’ll let you know. It’s a lengthy listing of funds,” she says, together with minor costs. “We needed to pay for the egg donation, for the checks, our donors would take – generally to the tune of 400,000 naira [$971]. At first, our physician stated I may deliver my sister or relative [to be egg donors] firstly as that can relieve us of the additional charges, however the probabilities of a profitable fertilisation with them are low, so we simply determined to pay further.”

Reflecting on the nameless egg donors, she continues, “I don’t know what they undergo, however I do know it may well’t be simple on them. However I’m grateful to them for doing it, although I do know their main incentive is the cash.”

That is what donors like Joan take consolation in. “No matter occurs, I simply hope one or two moms are on the market with their infants and comfortable,” she says.

However as in Adefunke’s case, IVF usually has a low price of success, that means many individuals shall be left poor and childless. “We regularly have a few quarter of profitable circumstances, about 25-30 %. In a few of the unsuccessful circumstances, they may come again,” says Professor Jimoh.

Joan went again to the clinic 5 days after her unhealthy encounter with the physician and was seen by a distinct one. After a fast examination, she was advised to return the subsequent day for the egg retrieval.

The process didn’t take lengthy, and for Joan, it was not a painful one.

A number of hours after she bought house that day, she bought an alert telling her 100,000 naira ($243) had been deposited into her checking account.

Whereas she is glad on the alternative to assist ladies conceive, Joan says it isn’t one thing she would take into account going by once more.

“The expertise of donating? By no means once more … It’s a type of issues I attempt to suppress and put behind my thoughts prefer it by no means occurred.”

However she says she understands why it’s a booming trade.

“It is best to have seen the individuals on the hospital, those that have been determined to see the medical doctors for therapy,” she displays. “If I used to be able like that, I’ll additionally pay as a lot cash as I can.”

*Names have been modified to guard the privateness of the egg donors and recipients.